Question special

There is a nice and timely research article in this month's issue of Cell (Montero et al., Cell. 2015. PMID 25723171) illustrating one approach by which patient tumor cells can be used to test the efficacy of various cancer drugs and combinations thereof. What are some other approaches for using patient cells or other models to help overcome the fundamental challenge of interpreting genetic variation and predicting how individuals may respond to various treatments? How can similar paradigms be applied for diseases outside of cancer? How can these be applied in routine clinical care?