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Lead Moderator

Some patients may be wary about letting a resident physician participate in his/her operation because they think that residents will "screw up" or do something unsafe that could cause them harm. A number of studies (e.g.
have tried to identify whether or not resident participation leads to increased complication rates. The design of some of these studies is better than others, however, no studies that I am aware of demonstrate real increases in complications (though I'm more aware of general surgery studies than others). Is this similar in other specialties?

For our experts and author, are these questions that you are asked frequently and do you think this is a real concern (in the absence of good evidence) that patients have? Are there any well-conducted studies that have actually shown increases in poor outcomes?

Other thoughts?