Thank you so much to our authors, particularly Dr. Orandi, and our experts for participating in this discussion about organ transplantation. It has been a pleasure to get your insight on the implications of the landmark study, "Survival Benefit with Kidney Transplants for HLA-Incompatible Live Donors, " on the future of the field. Moreover, it was exciting to delve into the history and ethics of transplantation, and to get a glimpse of what other innovations might be on the horizon.
I would like to close this discussion by inviting our guests to tell us what they think will be the biggest changes in the field of transplant over the next 5 years? What about 20? What about 50? Will we still be using human tissues or will organs be just one 3-d printer away? Will we still be requiring significant immunosuppression to keep grafts alive, or will we have developed better strategies to promote graft tolerance? What are the innovations you would like to see that aren't quite conceivable yet, but you hope will become real possibilities down the line?