ATP is the second most important molecule in the human organism because it generates energy through its disociation by the ATP synthase protein.
The idea is that a nanorobot can achieve the binding of ADP to phosohate groups using light or radiation.
The electromagnetic radiation can be of any kind, from visible range to X rays of low energy, thus the nanorobot can be fueled by a whole range of photons. The nanorobot consists of two triangular (in section) quantum dots that each have ligands for ADP and for phosphate (Pi). Before reviewing the possible ligands we shall present the mechanism of conversion of the radiation energy to usable energy for the human body.
The quantum dots are optically active quantum dots and they can host excitons as photons impinge on them. Due to the fact that they have an asymetrical shape holes (vacancies in the valence band of the semiconductor material that the dots are made of) and electrons will distribute in the following way: holes which have positive charge will distribute to the apex of a particular quantum dot (QD), while electrons, having a smaller effective mass and thus a an energy that permits a larger confinement will distribute towards the base of the same QD as in the figure attached.
Two such dots that happen to be in vicinity will attract as in case b) bringing thus together the ADP and phosphate molecules and making possible the reaction.
Once they come in contact the two dots are allowed to recombine their charge carriers through tunneling between dots. In this way the hole of the dot in the left of case c) recombines with electron from the base of the dot in the right and vice-versa. During their contact ATP is formed and this is the most important process.
After charge neutralization the two dots will separate due to Brownian motion and this will release the ATP as in case d)
As dots we can use pyramidal or conical CdSe/ZnS dots. A hydrophilic polymer coating is prefferable. One ligand is Anti-Adenosine Receptor A2a antibody which has to be biotinylated and linked with streptavidin conjugated dots. The other ligand is a PhosTag molecules conjugated in the same fashion as the previous molecule.
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